With the rapid development of IoT use cases and deployments, further pressure is placed on cellular networks. The development of LTE-M and specific network technology aimed at IoT has driven the network deployments targeted solely at IoT applications and services, but new networks and frameworks are also available to deliver IoT services. As these options become available, and the use cases for IoT increase in scope, a careful discussion and analysis of each option will have to be carried out before deployment. How can MNOs work together with different industry verticals to ensure quality of service and bandwidth, as well as understand their particular requirements? How should these operators organize their resource and network capacity to manage IoT services through their networks? Will cellular and non-cellular IoT networks continue to be seen as “competitive”, or is there space for coopetition, at the very least?